Monday, May 25, 2020

The Athenian Assembly Of Build A Fleet Of Triremes

According to Herodotus Histories book he states â€Å"Themistocles convinces the Athenian assembly to build a fleet of triremes†, which will be explained more as you read on. Both sides had very similar ships - the Triremes- which were 40-50 ton wooden warships up to 40 m long. Light, streamlined, and manoeuvrable, they were powered in battle by 170 oarsmen split in three ranks down each side of the ship. They were able to rapidly accelerate, break, zigzag, and turn 360 degrees in just two ships’ lengths, good seamanship could place the vessel to best advantage and employ the principal strategy of naval warfare at that time which was to ram the enemy. The way the Greeks prepared for the battle was, they had 371 triremes and pentekonters which were smaller fifty- oared ship, successfully under Themistocles, but officially led by the spartan Eurybiades. According to Herodotus he mentions that â€Å"The Athenians with 182 ships, half the whole fleet, - 40 from Corinth; 3 0 from Aegina; 20 from Megara; 20 from Chalcis; 16 from Lacedaemon (Sparta), 15 from Sicyon; 10 from Epidaurus; 7 from Ambracia; 7 from Eretria; 5 from Troezen; 4 from Naxos; 3 from Hermione; 3 from Leucas; 2 from Ceos; 2 from Styra; 1 from Croton; and 1 from Cynthus. The total number of warships was 368†. Herodotus also mentions the Persians fleet: â€Å"1,327 warships from the Persian allies and subjugated states present at Salamis. These included 300 from Phoenicia; 260 from the Greek cities in Asia Minor; 237 from theShow MoreRelatedThe Role of Themistocles in the Greek Defeat of the Persians in 480 - 479 BC.1486 Words   |  6 PagesDarius past defeats, vowed to extend the empire further west into the lands of Greece though was unsuccessful. His failure is largely attributed to the foresight and strategies of a respectable, wealthy Athenian citizen, Themistocles. Themistocles strengthening of the Athenian navy and unification of Greek states in the Panhellenic League along with his strategies in the battles of Thermopylae, Artemisium the pivotal Greek naval triumph at Salamis, all contributed to the ultimateRead MoreThe Greeks : The World s First Inventors Of Democracy, Politics, And Art1349 Words   |  6 Pagesis said to believed that is was Athens first step to an empire and glory. It was also the first time that the people had turned on its ruler and seized power for themselves. Cleisthenes was recalled from exile and asked by the people of Athens to build a government. They would meet at a meeting rock were Cleisthenes instituted the first vote. The people of Athens and Greece would soon come to know of a new threat trying to over throw them from power, The Persians. The Persians empire spread fromRead MoreAssess the reasons for the Greek victory over the Persians in 490 to 480/479 BC. Make a judgement based on outcome, results and values.2658 Words   |  11 Pagesfrom Miltiades who had in depth experience in Persian combat. As opposed to the Persians, the Greeks were willing to co operate in the defence of their country which directly lead to their success. Both Callimachus and Miltiades convinced the Athenian Assembly to send an army to Marathon. At Marathon, the 10 strategoi were equally divided in decision as to whether to attack the Persians or retreat, as they were heavily outnumbered. A decision was made to attack, and each of the generals was given one

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Financial Crisis Of 2007 And 2009 - 1594 Words

Prior to the crisis in 1907, individual banks such as JP Morgan and the reserve banks of New York were considered full service financial institutions. In the year 1913, the Federal Reserve System was created by congress to help stabilize the financial market by acting as the lender of last resort to the banking institutions (federalreserve.gov). Nonetheless the great depression still hit the economy between 1929 and 1933 which led to the stock market crash and market share value decrease by 80% (history.com). By the 1980s, the economy had stabilized again and there was increase in computer analysis, electronic information transfer, increased importance of global markets and deregulation of financial institutions. The financial crisis of 2007 and 2009 was the worst since the great depression. It was not a single event but a series of crises whose seeds had been planted in yet another recession of 2001 and the era of the internet bubble years earlier (Bodie, Kane, Marcus, 2011). One of the reasons for the crisis was the rise in subprime lending. Subprime loans were offered to individuals who did not qualify for prime rate loans and carried a higher rate of interest than prime loans (Gilbert, 2011). Another reason behind the subprime mortgage crisis is argued to have been due to the lack of ethics and poor policies such as the Goldman rule which encouraged pursuit of profitable opportunities irrespective of the effects on others (Watkins, 2011). The crises impacted theShow MoreRelatedThe Financial Crisis Of 2007-20091490 Words   |  6 PagesThe financial crisis of 2007-2009 resulted from a variety of external factors and market incentives, in combination with the housing price bubble in the United States. When high levels of bank and consumer leverage appeared, rising consumption caused increasingly risky lending, shown in the laxity in the standard of securities screening and riskier mortgages. As a consequence, the high default rate of these risky subprime mortgages incurred the burst of the housing bubble and increased defaultsRead MoreThe Financial Crisis of 2007-2009526 Words   |  2 Pagesfar the worst financial crisis that it has ever encountered, which was called The Great Depression, but the second worst was not that long ago. During the Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 the United States had a chain of banking failures and a tremendous growth of liability in the federal budget. However, the government had stepped in to prevent some of these failures and through this the concept of â€Å"Too Big To Fail† was created. â€Å"Too Big To Fail† is a concept where a business or financial institutionRead MoreFinancial Crisis Between 2007 And 2009 Essay1331 Words   |  6 PagesFinancial Crisis between 2007 and 2009 was the worst economic crisis after the Great Depression in 1930s. This crisis was a worldwide crisis as it affected the financial system globally and led to collapse in economy. Financial intermediation is a process of banks that take funds from the depositor and lend them out to the borrower. In the financial transaction, financial intermediary acts as the middleman between two parties. Commercial bank, investment banks, pension funds are the example for financialRead MoreWhat Was the Main Cause of the Financial Crisis in 2007-2009?1989 Words   |  8 PagesThe intention of this essay is to provide an in depth and critical analysis of the financial crisis that took place between 2007-2009, in particular focusing on some key issues raised by the Foote, Gerardi and Willen paper †˜Why did so many people make so many Ex Post bad decisions?’ Whilst there were many contributing factors, it is clear that a specific few played a particularly dominant role, primarily the ‘Bubble Theory’, irresponsible regulation, toxic CDO’s and $62 trillion of CDS’s. ‘That’sRead MoreA Review of Kacperczyk and Schnabls Article When Safe Proved Risky: Commerical Paper during the Financial Crisis of 2007-2009668 Words   |  3 Pages Scnabl trace the financial crisis of 2007 2009 via commercial paper. They describe the important role commercial paper played during the financial crisis. The working definition for commercial paper with respect to finances used in this article is as follows: Financial commercial paper is issued by large financial institutions. In contrast to asset-backed commercial paper, financial commercial paper is issued by the institution directly and not via a conduit. Also, financial commercial paper isRead MoreCauses And Effects Of The 2007865 Words   |  4 PagesEffects of the 2007 to 2009 Financial Crisis Financial crisis is a situation in which there are significant disruption in financial markets that is categorized by severe declines in asset prices and the failures of many financial and nonfinancial firms. Some of world’s greatest managed financial institutions went bankrupt and were striving for a bail out which led to government intervention to prevent a significant recession. In 2007, United State experienced one of the worst financial crisis since theRead MoreImpact of Financial Crisis on Gulf Area Essay1732 Words   |  7 PagesThe global financial crisis that was experienced in 2007/2008 affected many nations of the world. Some countries such as America and most European countries were hard hit since they were directly affected by the crisis. Other countries especially those in Asia and Africa were not adversely affected as they were not directly hit by the crisis. This crisis started in the United States after the housing bubble busted. Although the bursting of the housing bubble was the main cause of the crisis, there wereRead MoreCauses of the Financial Crisis of 2008-20091736 Words   |  7 PagesCauses of The Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 According to our financial textbook â€Å" Financial crises are major disruptions in financial markets characterized by sharp declines in asset prices and firm failures† (Mishkin and Eakins 2012). In August 2007, defaults in mortgage market for subprime borrowers sent a shudder through the financial markets, leading to the worst U.S financial crisis since the Great Depression. Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Fed, described the financial crisis as a â€Å"once-in-a-centuryRead MoreThe Global Financial Crisis Of 2007-20081123 Words   |  5 PagesThe Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 is the worst financial crisis since the 1930’s The Great Depression (Reuters, 2009). Even if bailouts of banks by national governments prevented the collapse of major financial institutions, worldwide stock markets continued to drop. Evictions and foreclosures overwhelmed the housing market while severed unemployment embraced the labor market (Baily and Elliot, 2009). This global financ ial crisis was responsible for the decline in the consumers’ wealth, andRead MoreVietnam And Its Effects On The United States1101 Words   |  5 Pagesopenness and (ii) Before the crisis, Vietnam was ranked the 50th and 41st among the top 50 countries with highest exports and imports relatively, accounting for 0.3% of total global exports and 0.4% of total global imports. Two majors news affecting Vietnamese exports in the seven-years period between 2001 and 2007 are the opening of the US market starting in 2001 and the joining of Vietnam into WTO in 2007. During this period, lasting until before the financial crisis, Vietnamese exports had been

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Phenomenon Of Online Trading How Ebay And Amazon...

Project BMAM707 Research question: The phenomenon of online trading: How does eBay and Amazon became successful without having a High Street store. This Project is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Management at the Westminster Business School of the University of Westminster, by Ewelina Marek 1483625 Date of submission: 27th August 2015 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This research project was carried out to identify the reason for popularity of online shopping, to describe why eBay and Amazon became successful without having a High Street store, to compare eBay and Amazon in terms of revenues and customer’s opinions and to develop ideas on how they could improve their performance†¦show more content†¦Amazon is not able to prove that it can generate steady profits and Jeff Bezos is constantly re-investing its revenues for future growth which results in shareholders losing their patience. Recommendations discussed include: ïÆ'Ëœ Improving the quality of customer service and after sale service for eBay and Amazon ïÆ'Ëœ Decreasing amount of money that are invested in Amazon’s growth and start showing steady profits CONTENTS PAGE: 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 E-commerce in general 2. 2 System users and measures of success 2.3 Consumers’ buying decisions 2.4 Privacy, security and trust 3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN - METHODOLOGY 4.0 CHAPTER 1: PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS – QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW 4.1 Questionnaire 4.2 Interview 5.0 CHAPTER 2. SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS – REASONS BEHIND AMAZON’S AND EBAY’S SUCCESS 5.1 Amazon’s success 5.2 Negative side of Amazon 5.3 EBay’s success 5.4 Success stories of eBay’s sellers 5.5 Negative side of eBay 5.6 Amazon’s vs EBay’s reviews 5.7 Financial performance of eBay and Amazon 5.8 Physical online presence vs online presence only 6.0 CONCLUSION 7.0 REFERENCES 8.0 APPENDICES 8.1 Appendix A: Questionnaire 8.2 Appendix B: Interview questions 8.3 Appendix C: Library Consent Form 1.0 INTRODUCTION: This project is about finding the key to a successful online trading. First online shop was created years before the world wide web

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

First Hospital HRM

Question: Discuss about theFirst Hospital HRM. Answer: Introduction Human Resource Management function has emerged as a key function for organizations (Smith, 2001). The objective of this paper is to discuss to case study of Fist Hospital. The organization, First Hospital is a mid-size hospital with 400 employees. The organization does not have a dedicated human resource function. The CEO of the hospital believes that there is no need of HRM function as they have an external HRM consultant visiting every week. However, this model has failed for the company as it has low employee satisfaction, high absenteeism, high staff grievances, etc. The paper would discuss the future course of action in HRM area for First Hospital. The benchmarking can be done against another similar size hospital that has a dedicated HR function (Canonico Nito, 2015). This hospital has excellent track record of staff retention and high employee morals. Course of Action for First Hospital Authors argued that for any organization, the human resource management function should be part of the strategic planning. The most challenging aspect of strategic planning in healthcare is the financial uncertainty created by a mix of regulations and out of control inflation. Healthcare is a multi-billion-dollar industry that take up over 17% of all the money in the economy (Benschop, 2015). Hospitals are extremely expensive to run and regulations and restrictions around reimbursing for services makes long-term planning challenging. The uncertain cost of operations often put pressure on hospitals to optimize or to minimize the number of HR managers. Whether a hospital is for-profit, non-profit, or government owned it must have a budget and make more than it spends. This means that strategic planning revolves around providing services with good reimbursement vs. a focus on providing needed services (Horowitz, 2005). Every hospital provides some services that it loses money on but it must also have services that it produces excess funds to offset these loses. Strategic planning in healthcare must take into consideration potential reimbursement issues and operating costs. One area that is often overlooked is human resources. Nurses and doctors are both in short supply and there are lots of opportunities for them to relocate or to travel and work as highly reimbursed temporary employees (Alcazar, 2013). While many healthcare professionals that work as locums are beneficial to hospitals, in general these individuals are not invested in the locale and are not going to make major, long-term contributions to any strategic plan. A strategic focus that retains and rewards local talent can realize long-term savings in decreased training costs and increased productivity. Human resources are usually the most expensive financial item for an organization but failure to manage that resource well can produce a lot of hidden costs. Individual inefficiencies are difficult to measure and are often overlooked by mangers who view employees as identical widge ts. This also means that such a strategic focus would be a differentiation strategy. People naturally want to feel appreciated and so an ability to communicate that sets an organization apart from other less personable employers (Jackson, 2014). This is also a means to high HR competence without high costs. The ability to retain personnel who are expert in their department as well as experts in the corporate culture will pay dividends. Quality is a driving force that is poised to change healthcare also. There are two ways that this happens. One is to have a lot of regulations and policies to try to hedge in quality and make it happen (Bleijenbergh, 2010). The other way is to hire and train quality professionals and empower them to give quality care. This dichotomy is being implemented in many places and it will be interesting to see how it plays out in the years ahead. The course of action could also be discussed under following heads: Minimizing the cost and failure: Human Resource Management is a major challenge in healthcare and doing more with less is the way of the foreseeable future. It is critical that the cost should be minimized while making any investment in the area of HRM. Services to Offer: The Human Resource Management function for First Hospital should offer multiple services like recruitment, performance management, appraisals, rewards, etc. Laws and regulations: It is important that the hospital should operate under the domestic laws and regulations. There are various laws that act as the guiding principles for the organizations in the health care industry. It is important that First Hospital should operate as per these laws and regulations. The step forward for First Hospital is to establish a full-fledged HR function. The organizations can start with a small HRM function. The CEO should realize that hiring an external consultant may not be the best approach. There must be an internal team of HR managers that address all the issues related to human resources (Park, 2014). The organization should take HRM function as a strategic function in the organization. The view of HRM function for First Hospital can be shown as: The future course of action for First Hospital would be to have a planning phase where the CEO and other senior leaders can take the input from various stakeholders. The phased wise plan for First Hospital can be shown as: Phase Objective Timeline Assessment HRM Planning and vision, goals and objectives 1 month Framework Development Manage change with effective communication with different stakeholders 2 months Actual Implementation Ensure that change does not impact Business as Usual 4 months Continuous Improvement Make HRM optimized and more flexible Ongoing It would be correct to say that effective communication would be a key for First Hospital to move forward. Steps that can improve the communication strategy for my organization would be to identify the goals, schedule regular meetings, breakdown goals so they fit the employees personalities, develop objectives that builds communication, ensure the plan is understood within the organization and define the plan throughout the process (Canonico Nito, 2015). It is also important that the HRM function should be tightly coupled across the employees ate various levels (Bock Zmud, 2005). The senior management and top leaders would have the responsibility to develop the policies. However, the management must include mid-level management and low-level employees. Sustainable HR Capability It is important that Human Resource Management should be process oriented so that it is sustainable in nature. Strategic human resource management (SHRM) emerged as a dominant approach to human resource management (HRM) policy during the past 30 years. However, during the last decade, a new approach to HRM has evolved. This approach has been labelled sustainable human resource management (sustainable HRM). Strategic planning for health care costs needs to be implemented at every level throwing money at the problem is not working it has had a detrimental effect on quality vs costs ratio. Capital expenditures and people are the major costs for hospitals (Janssens, 2014). Human Resource Managers need to balance improvements and costs while staying ahead of the competition. One way to do this is to retain quality people and get them to buy into the vision and mission of the organization. Happy people make for a happy work place; unhappy workers make for a bad work environment. Retention of workers is much more cost effective than continually training new hires, this is one way to combat the costs. There are five key competencies that can create sustainable HRM environment. These competencies can be discussed as: Human Resource as a Strategic Partner It is believed that High-performing HR professionals think and act from the outside/in. They are deeply knowledgeable about external business trends and able to translate them into internal decisions and actions. Human Resource as a Credible Activist The human resource managers and leaders should use the planning function is used throughout the process to determine what can be done, what should be done, and how much will it cost. The lean part of planning is to check with customers and end users to ensure that the service or goods are what are desired (McEvoy, 2012). Human Resource as a Capability Builder The human resource managers should focus on development, more precisely of leadership training, employee development, succession planning and employee incentive plans. When we talk about strategic planning we have looked at it on a company level and then down to a department level. Human Resource as a Change Champion It is important that organizations should concurrently provide support and guidance to the team that is driving the change. The human resource managers can enable start-up groups to develop their own solutions to the problems they face. Management will need to set clear standards and deadlines for these groups. This approach influences the benefits of small groups while also taking advantage of the greater scale of resources that large organizations require. This ability to control and reduce risk through business experiments, leads to a decision point (Euchner Ganguly, 2014). Human Resource as a People Voice It is important that human resource managers should gel with the employees. The human resource managers should create a culture where employees can express themselves freely. The company should have a business model that includes people and managers together at a common platform. Business Models are not something that an individual first thinks about when starting up a business but it should be. It is an important piece of the puzzle that is essential to any new or existing company. Choosing the right business model for a company is key to a companys success in both the Internet and physical world. Recommendations It is recommended that CEO of First Health should have a long-term plan for human resource management function. It is important that HRM function should be considered as a strategic function in the organization. The human resource managers are the key players in an organization and the management of First Hospital should realize the importance of HRM for long term growth and development. It is recommended that the management should be ready to handle the change that can come with the introduction of dedicated HRM function. The management should have a strategy in place to handle this change. Conclusion The CEO of First Hospital should realize that each function is necessary for the business model to be effective for the company. The value proposition is the value that is delivered to the target customers and the market segment is referring to who is getting the most benefit from the technology. The step to integrate human resource strategy with business strategy is very important in developing growth strategies for the company. The structure of the value chain is needed to expand the product or service offer and estimating the cost structure and profit is needed for the first three functions. The position of the firm takes into account the supplier and customer network. References Benschop, Y., Holgersson, C., Van den Brink, M., Wahl, A. (2015). Future challenges for practices of diversity management in organizations. Handbook for Diversity in Organizations, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 553-574. Bleijenbergh, I., Peters, P., Poutsma, E. (2010). Diversity management beyond the business case. Equality, diversity and inclusion: an international journal, 29(5), 413-421. Bock, G. W., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y. G. and Lee, J. N. (2005) 'Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining the Roles of Extrinsic Motivators, Social-psychological Forces, and Organizational Climate', MIS Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 87-111 Buller, P. F., McEvoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human resource management review, 22(1), 43-56. Canonico, P., De Nito, E., Esposito, V., Martinez, M., Iacono, M., Mercurio, L. (2015) 'The boundaries of a performance management system between learning and control', Measuring Business Excellence, 19 (3), p. 7-21 Euchner, J. E., Ganguly, A. D. (2014). Business Model Innovation in Practice. Research Technology Management, 57(6), 33-39. Jackson, S. E., Schuler, R. S., Jiang, K. (2014). An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management. The Academy of Management Annals, 8(1), 1-56. Janssens, M., Zanoni, P. (2014). Alternative diversity management: Organizational practices fostering ethnic equality at work. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 30(3), 317-331. Martn Alcazar, F., Miguel Romero Fernndez, P., Snchez Gardey, G. (2013). Workforce diversity in strategic human resource management models: A critical review of the literature and implications for future research. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 20(1), 39-49. Park, S. (2014), 'Motivation of Public Managers as Raters in Performance Appraisal: Developing a Model of Rater Motivation', Public Personnel Management, 43 (4), pp. 387-414 Purce, J. (2014). The impact of corporate strategy on human resource management. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals), 67. Smith, E.A., (2001) 'The role of tacit and explicit knowledge in the workplace', Journal of Knowledge Management, 5 (4), pp.311-321

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Beatles Break Up Essays - Counterculture Of The 1960s,

Beatles Break Up Final paper; The Beatles Break-up The End of a Legend As they walked off the plane, thousands of people stood there to welcome them. They were screaming their names and singing their songs. Everyone had heard of them, they were the true meaning of rock and roll; they defined it. They were the biggest sensation since Elvis; they called themselves The Beatles. They had never expected to be the next sensation. No one ever expects to become a great legend in national or world history. It had taken them two years to establish the final four members, but once they joined together they were known around the world. Even though they were not the greatest guitarists, drummers, singers or musicians (Professor Joel Friedman, personal interview). As a whole they came together as a world champion team, like a finely tuned machine. But just as every dynasty has its finest hour they came to an end, just like any great thing. No one ever wanted or thought this miraculous band would ever cease to be. However, they did, but why is the question many people still ask today. They were four young men with a dream to play in a band. The members consisted of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George Harrison. The band was created in nineteen sixty, but the group was not fully established until nineteen sixty-two. This is when the name British Invasion first started to take acclaim. They toured around the world performing everywhere. Not wanting to ever stop for a second because of the love they all had for music and because of how hard they had worked to finally achieve what all human beings want, success. They had about seven great years together, at least from what the world new, but soon things started to change. The group began to have difficulties within themselves. Internal conflict is what brings all great things to stop working like clockwork. The question is what was so bad that this extremely talented group had to break up? There is much controversy to why the group broke up. Many people believed different things, the problems varied; the problems ranged from drugs to personal differences among one another. The group gave many interviews and had many discussions to why they had broken up, but still there are debates. People now are starting to come to the conclusion, that there is not one specific reason to why the exceptional band ended. Could the Beatles just have not had anything left to do with their music? According to The Beatles, written by Allan Kozinn, the Beatles had given seven great years of music, but the whole group wanted different things. In a personal interview done with Professor Friedman, the possibilities were endless to why they ended. Lennon had begun recording a record with his wife and felt it was in his best interests to go solo. McCartney, one of the key writers for the band, began creating songs solo. The band no longer worked as a group to accomplish things; they would just come together as one when they needed to record. The band started to feel that it would just be better to go on their own paths and see where they would end. Many people say this reason could not be true because all of the Beatles songs say written by McCartney-Lennon. McCartney and Lennon would no longer try to create songs together, or try to put music to what they had written. It got to the point were the only reason the songs were McCartney-Lennon was because Lennon might give his opinion if McCartney needed help, not because he wanted to help him write (Friedman). According to the web site, on March 30, 2000, www.askjeeves.com, Harrison had wanted more artistic freedom with his work, which was not possible. Harrison had become very interested in Indian music, culture and philosophy; he wanted to incorporate it into the Beatles music, but Lennon and McCartney would have no part of that. (Kozinn, 162). They believed that they were the two writers for the group, and did not want to incorporate Harrison's music into their band, therefore he felt as though he was being shunned

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Free Essays on Massachusettes And Virginia Colonies

The colonies of Massachusetts and Virginia differed both socially and economically. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was established on a foundation of strict Puritan religious principles and created an economy that relied on agriculture, hunting, fishing, and trade. However, the Virginia economy depended heavily on the cultivation and exportation of tobacco and organized its society according to the hierarchy of the Anglican Church. Virginia's economy relied overwhelmingly upon agriculture and more specifically tobacco. The combination of a warm climate and sufficient rainfall created optimal conditions for cultivation of this staple crop. Charles I stated that the Virginia colony was â€Å"founded upon smoke† (pg. 115.) By 1619 tobacco production had reached 20,000 pounds, and by 1688 the amount had increased 900 times to approximately 18 million pounds of tobacco. Settlers who planted tobacco quickly found out that it exhausted the soil, giving an advantage to those planters who had more land and could afford to leave some of their field uncultivated Indentured servants and slaves planted, harvested, and tended to tobacco and other crops, while planters profited from their labor. many of the laborers in Virginia’s fields were African slaves, but not all laborers were African. Many of the workers were indentured servants or criminals from England. The indentured servants accounted for over half of the white settlers in Virginia; these indentured usually lasted between four and seven years. After serving their terms, they were released and given money, tools, clothing, food, and, sometimes, land. However, many servants died before completing their indentures, and many who survived their service remained poor. Criminals from England had the option of being hanged or serving the rest of their lives as slaves in the colonies. African slaves first arrived in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. Some of the first Africans were treated as indentu... Free Essays on Massachusettes And Virginia Colonies Free Essays on Massachusettes And Virginia Colonies The colonies of Massachusetts and Virginia differed both socially and economically. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was established on a foundation of strict Puritan religious principles and created an economy that relied on agriculture, hunting, fishing, and trade. However, the Virginia economy depended heavily on the cultivation and exportation of tobacco and organized its society according to the hierarchy of the Anglican Church. Virginia's economy relied overwhelmingly upon agriculture and more specifically tobacco. The combination of a warm climate and sufficient rainfall created optimal conditions for cultivation of this staple crop. Charles I stated that the Virginia colony was â€Å"founded upon smoke† (pg. 115.) By 1619 tobacco production had reached 20,000 pounds, and by 1688 the amount had increased 900 times to approximately 18 million pounds of tobacco. Settlers who planted tobacco quickly found out that it exhausted the soil, giving an advantage to those planters who had more land and could afford to leave some of their field uncultivated Indentured servants and slaves planted, harvested, and tended to tobacco and other crops, while planters profited from their labor. many of the laborers in Virginia’s fields were African slaves, but not all laborers were African. Many of the workers were indentured servants or criminals from England. The indentured servants accounted for over half of the white settlers in Virginia; these indentured usually lasted between four and seven years. After serving their terms, they were released and given money, tools, clothing, food, and, sometimes, land. However, many servants died before completing their indentures, and many who survived their service remained poor. Criminals from England had the option of being hanged or serving the rest of their lives as slaves in the colonies. African slaves first arrived in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. Some of the first Africans were treated as indentu...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

In the second half of the 20th century, the growth of interest in Essay

In the second half of the 20th century, the growth of interest in human rights has been accompanied by a revival in natural law. Consider why this should be so - Essay Example Indeed, the cinema is the best medium to illustrate how human rights are wantonly violated all over the world. Such films force everyone to fling their cloaks of apathy and go down from their ivory towers and make a stand or a reaction to such abuses. Practically all rights proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights were violated i.e. "the rights to life, liberty, and security of person; to freedom from arbitrary arrest; to a fair trial; to be presumed innocent until proved guilty; to freedom of movement and residence; to asylum, nationality, and ownership of property" and so on.1 The Last King of Scotland, meanwhile, illustrates how a demented ruler, so intoxicated in his powers, can heap so much suffering and destruction to everyone who crosses his path. Idi Amin of Uganda in the 1970's ruled as a dictator and "forced most of the Asians who lived in Uganda to leave the country and had many of his opponents massacred".2 One scene showed his Scottish doctor-adviser hanged on a tenterhook with the hook piercing his chest. 2 The Killing Fields is Cambodia's version of Europe's holocaust. Like the Schindler's List, there's gore galore and human rights abuses to the max. It's so poignant and compelling that critic Rex Reed was made to comment i.e. "no film in my memory has more harrowingly telegraphed the ravages of war than The Killing Fields".3 The most affecting scenes are the scenes of torture ; the one where emaciated Cambodians had to eat live lizards in order to survive and the one where fathers and mothers were mercilessly slaughtered by their brainwashed children. The Killing Fields saga is faithful to history as attested by Amnesty International USA and by the Genocide Studies Program of Yale University. Says the latter "The Cambodian genocide of 1975-1979, in which approximately 1.7 million people lost their lives (21% of the population) was one of the worst human tragedies of the last century".4 It further continued, "the Khmer Rouge regime of Pol Pot combined extremist ideology with ethnic animosity and a diabolical disregard for human life to produce repression, misery, and murder in a massive scale". One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was transported to the screen from the novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. The Russian Nobel Prize winner in Literature novelist, was himself incarcerated in the same gulag that he wrote about and thus his tale was almost biographical. The gulag or a "network of forced labor camps in the former Soviet Union"5 was a symbol of Russian brutality and godlessness during that communist regime. The character Ivan represented the suffering of those who had to do "hard, manual work for 12